Making Physiology Happen




iWorx systems, recorders and software have been used for recording ERGs in rodents and insects as noted in these Citations.


DP-301 AmplifierDifferential Amplifier (DP-301) by Warner Instruments
The DP-301 is a single channel AC/DC differential pre-amplifier highly suited for EEG, EKG and extracellular recording.


Differential Amplifier (Model 3000) by A-M Systems
The Model 3000 High-Gain AC/DC Differential Amplifier is designed for low-noise recordings from excitable tissue. Specific applications include EEG, EKG, extracelluar recordings, and more.


KIX-RA-834 8 Channel RecorderiWorx IX-RA-834 8 Channel Recorder
The iWorx RA-834C Recorder is the most advanced and feature-rich physiological data acquisition system on the market.


IX-400 Series Recorder

iWorx IX-400 Series Recorders
The iWorx 400 Series recorders are economical, high performance four, eight or sixteen channel data recorders for use with a broad range of analog amplifiers.


ERG in Rodents

Samuels, Ivy S., et al. “Exclusion of Aldose Reductase as a mediator of ERG deficits in a mouse model of diabetic eye disease.Visual neuroscience 29.06 (2012): 267-274.

Wu, Jiang, et al. “Contribution of Kir4. 1 to the mouse electroretinogram.” Molecular vision 10 (2004): 650.

Wu, Jiang, et al. “Voltage-dependent calcium channel CaV1. 3 subunits regulate the light peak of the electroretinogram.” Journal of neurophysiology 97.5 (2007): 3731-3735.

Wu, Jiang, Alan D. Marmorstein, and Neal S. Peachey. “Functional abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium of CFTR mutant mice.” Experimental eye research 83.2 (2006): 424-428.

PEACHEY, NEAL S., J. BRETT STANTON, and ALAN D. MARMORSTEIN. “Noninvasive recording and response characteristics of the rat dc-electroretinogram.” Visual neuroscience 19.06 (2002): 693-701.

Marmorstein, Alan D., Neal S. Peachey, and Karl G. Csaky. “In vivo gene transfer as a means to study the physiology and morphogenesis of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rat.” Methods 30.3 (2003): 277-285.

Marmorstein, Alan D., et al. “A model of best vitelliform macular dystrophy in rats.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 45.10 (2004): 3733-3739.

Wu, Jiang, Neal S. Peachey, and Alan D. Marmorstein. “Light-evoked responses of the mouse retinal pigment epithelium.” Journal of neurophysiology 91.3 (2004): 1134-1142.

Wu, Jiang, et al. “Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Ca.Hum. Mol. Genet (2010).

Yu, Minzhong, et al. “Age-related changes in visual function in cystathionine-beta-synthase mutant mice, a model of hyperhomocysteinemia.Experimental eye research 96.1 (2012): 124-131.

Won, Jungyeon, et al. “Membrane frizzled-related protein is necessary for the normal development and maintenance of photoreceptor outer segments.Visual neuroscience 25.04 (2008): 563-574.

Shen, Yi, Wan-Yu Zhang, and George CY Chiou. “Effect of naringenin on NaIO3-induced retinal pigment epithelium degeneration and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats.International journal of ophthalmology 3.1 (2010): 5.

Jiang, Wei, and G. C. Chiou. “Effects of hydralazine on NaIO3-induced rat retinal pigment epithelium degeneration.” Int J Ophthalmol 8 (2008): 1504-10.

Shen, Yi, Pei Zhuang, and George CY Chiou. “Effect of Guanabenz on Rat AMD Models and Rabbit Choroidal Blood Flow.” The open ophthalmology journal 5 (2011): 27.

Zhuang, Pei, Yi Shen, and George CY Chiou. “Effects of flavone on the oxidation-induced injury of retinal pigment epithelium cells.” International journal of ophthalmology 3.2 (2010): 99.

Samuels, Ivy S., et al. “Light-evoked responses of the retinal pigment epithelium: changes accompanying photoreceptor loss in the mouse.” Journal of neurophysiology 104.1 (2010): 391-402.

Shen, Yi, et al. “Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine on RPE degeneration, choroidal blood flow and oxidative stress of RPE cells.” International journal of ophthalmology 3.3 (2010): 205.

Dalziel, J. E., K. E. Dunstan, and S. C. Finch. “Combined effects of fungal alkaloids on intestinal motility in an in vitro rat model.” Journal of animal science 91.11 (2013): 5177-5182.

Rajashekhar, Gangaraju, et al. “Regenerative therapeutic potential of adipose stromal cells in early stage diabetic retinopathy.PloS one 9.1 (2014): e84671.

Chabot, Christopher C., and Laura K. Webb. “Circadian rhythms of heart rate in freely moving and restrained American lobsters, Homarus americanus.” Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 41.1 (2008): 29-41.


ERG in Insects

James, Marisano, et al. “The unusual eyes of Xenos peckii (Strepsiptera: Xenidae) have green-and UV-sensitive photoreceptors.” Journal of Experimental Biology 219.24 (2016): 3866-3874.
Popkiewicz, Barbara, and Frederick R. Prete. “Macroscopic characteristics of the praying mantis electroretinogram.Journal of insect physiology 59.8 (2013): 812-823.

Krans, Jacob, Cole Gilbert, and Ron Hoy. “Teaching insect retinal physiology with newly designed, inexpensive micromanipulators.” Advances in physiology education 30.4 (2006): 254-261.


An electroretinogram (ERG) is a recording of the electrical responses of the cells of the retina to a light stimulus. ERG parameters are detected, and functions derived from those parameters are computed in LabScribe’s ERG Advanced Analysis Module.