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iWorx systems, recorders and software have been used for recording ERGs in rodents and insects as noted in these Citations.


DP-301 AmplifierDifferential Amplifier (DP-301) by Warner Instruments
The DP-301 is a single channel AC/DC differential pre-amplifier highly suited for EEG, EKG and extracellular recording.


Differential Amplifier (Model 3000) by A-M Systems
The Model 3000 High-Gain AC/DC Differential Amplifier is designed for low-noise recordings from excitable tissue. Specific applications include EEG, EKG, extracelluar recordings, and more.


KIX-RA-834 8 Channel RecorderiWorx IX-RA-834 8 Channel Recorder
The iWorx RA-834C Recorder is the most advanced and feature-rich physiological data acquisition system on the market.


IX-400 Series Recorder

iWorx IX-400 Series Recorders
The iWorx 400 Series recorders are economical, high performance four, eight or sixteen channel data recorders for use with a broad range of analog amplifiers.


ERG in Rodents

Samuels, Ivy S., et al. “Exclusion of Aldose Reductase as a mediator of ERG deficits in a mouse model of diabetic eye disease.Visual neuroscience 29.06 (2012): 267-274.

Wu, Jiang, et al. “Contribution of Kir4. 1 to the mouse electroretinogram.” Molecular vision 10 (2004): 650.

Wu, Jiang, et al. “Voltage-dependent calcium channel CaV1. 3 subunits regulate the light peak of the electroretinogram.” Journal of neurophysiology 97.5 (2007): 3731-3735.

Wu, Jiang, Alan D. Marmorstein, and Neal S. Peachey. “Functional abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium of CFTR mutant mice.” Experimental eye research 83.2 (2006): 424-428.

PEACHEY, NEAL S., J. BRETT STANTON, and ALAN D. MARMORSTEIN. “Noninvasive recording and response characteristics of the rat dc-electroretinogram.” Visual neuroscience 19.06 (2002): 693-701.

Marmorstein, Alan D., Neal S. Peachey, and Karl G. Csaky. “In vivo gene transfer as a means to study the physiology and morphogenesis of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rat.” Methods 30.3 (2003): 277-285.

Marmorstein, Alan D., et al. “A model of best vitelliform macular dystrophy in rats.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 45.10 (2004): 3733-3739.

Wu, Jiang, Neal S. Peachey, and Alan D. Marmorstein. “Light-evoked responses of the mouse retinal pigment epithelium.” Journal of neurophysiology 91.3 (2004): 1134-1142.

Wu, Jiang, et al. “Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Ca.Hum. Mol. Genet (2010).

Yu, Minzhong, et al. “Age-related changes in visual function in cystathionine-beta-synthase mutant mice, a model of hyperhomocysteinemia.Experimental eye research 96.1 (2012): 124-131.

Won, Jungyeon, et al. “Membrane frizzled-related protein is necessary for the normal development and maintenance of photoreceptor outer segments.Visual neuroscience 25.04 (2008): 563-574.

Shen, Yi, Wan-Yu Zhang, and George CY Chiou. “Effect of naringenin on NaIO3-induced retinal pigment epithelium degeneration and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats.International journal of ophthalmology 3.1 (2010): 5.

Jiang, Wei, and G. C. Chiou. “Effects of hydralazine on NaIO3-induced rat retinal pigment epithelium degeneration.” Int J Ophthalmol 8 (2008): 1504-10.

Shen, Yi, Pei Zhuang, and George CY Chiou. “Effect of Guanabenz on Rat AMD Models and Rabbit Choroidal Blood Flow.” The open ophthalmology journal 5 (2011): 27.

Zhuang, Pei, Yi Shen, and George CY Chiou. “Effects of flavone on the oxidation-induced injury of retinal pigment epithelium cells.” International journal of ophthalmology 3.2 (2010): 99.

Samuels, Ivy S., et al. “Light-evoked responses of the retinal pigment epithelium: changes accompanying photoreceptor loss in the mouse.” Journal of neurophysiology 104.1 (2010): 391-402.

Shen, Yi, et al. “Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine on RPE degeneration, choroidal blood flow and oxidative stress of RPE cells.” International journal of ophthalmology 3.3 (2010): 205.

Dalziel, J. E., K. E. Dunstan, and S. C. Finch. “Combined effects of fungal alkaloids on intestinal motility in an in vitro rat model.” Journal of animal science 91.11 (2013): 5177-5182.

Rajashekhar, Gangaraju, et al. “Regenerative therapeutic potential of adipose stromal cells in early stage diabetic retinopathy.PloS one 9.1 (2014): e84671.

Chabot, Christopher C., and Laura K. Webb. “Circadian rhythms of heart rate in freely moving and restrained American lobsters, Homarus americanus.” Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 41.1 (2008): 29-41.


ERG in Insects

Macroscopic characteristics of the praying mantis electroretinogram.

Popkiewicz, Barbara, and Frederick R. Prete. “Macroscopic characteristics of the praying mantis electroretinogram.” Journal of insect physiology 59.8 (2013): 812-823.

Teaching insect retinal physiology with newly designed, inexpensive micromanipulators,

Krans, Jacob, Cole Gilbert, and Ron Hoy. “Teaching insect retinal physiology with newly designed, inexpensive micromanipulators.” Advances in physiology education 30.4 (2006): 254-261.


An electroretinogram (ERG) is a recording of the electrical responses of the cells of the retina to a light stimulus. ERG parameters are detected, and functions derived from those parameters are computed in LabScribe’s ERG Advanced Analysis Module.