Shopping Cart

Teaching

Brand Recognition Lab

Experiment BM-16: Brand Recognition

Background

Brand recognition or brand awareness is the extent to which a brand is identified by prospective customers, and is correctly associated with a particular product, such as soft drinks or car logos. Usually expressed as a percentage of the “target” market, brand recognition is the primary goal of advertisers in the early stages of a product’s marketing campaign.

Brand recognition is related to the functions of brand identities in consumers’ memories and can be reflected by how well the consumers can identify the brand under varying conditions. Brand awareness includes “brand recognition” and “brand recall.” Brand recognition refers to the ability to correctly identify the brand they had previously been exposed to. This does not require that the consumers identify the actual brand name, but instead, it can mean there is a response to a certain brand after seeing the packaging images. Brand recall is the ability to correctly reproduce and retrieve the specific brand in their memory. A brand name that is so well known is commonly referred to as a household name.”

Awareness, attitudes, and usage are the three main metrics that allow companies to track trends in consumer knowledge and attitudes. These are generally termed the “Hierarchy of Effects” and are considered to be a linear progression leading to consumers having full brand loyalty. However, it has been shown that the linearity of being “aware,” then having certain “attitudes” towards, and having “used” a specific product is not always how it happens. Usage could cause the awareness and attitudes can influence the awareness. For example if a consumer owned a “Brand X” wireless mouse and had excellent experience with it that might determine a favorable brand attitude toward “Brand X.”

Brand recognition also plays a major role in a consumer’s buying decision-making process. During this process, the need is stimulated first, “I need to go grocery shopping.” When making the shopping list, usually only categories are written: milk, bread, yogurt. When at the store, brand recognition/knowledge kicks in, whether this from print advertising, radio or TV ads, or word of mouth. Here brand recognition does not require instant brand recall. However, in other situations, brand recall is a must: you are in a rush and need to get a bite to eat at a fast-food chain. It is not possible for you to drive all over the place, looking for a certain logo, and then finally make a decision. Retrieval of different fast-food brands in your memory must happen quickly and then one chooses to go there, all without the lengthy decision-making process. Here constant advertisement is important in consumers’ memory retrieval because the consumers are willing to go to the first brand that can be recalled. If there is a positive experience associated with the retrieval of the brand and the experience with the brand, brand loyalty has just occurred.

There are three types of Brand awareness:

  • Aided Awareness – is generated by a consumer. When asked about a product category, if the consumer is given a list of company names and he/she recognizes the company from that list, this is categorized as aided awareness.
  • Spontaneous Awareness – when asked about a product category, the consumers are asked to list any brands they know without any hints or cues.
  • Top of the Mind Awareness – when the name of the brand/product is automatically recalled

    because the consumer immediately associates it with the product category. It is the first brand

    name listed when asked to name brands they know without any hints.

Maintaining Brand Awareness is hugely important in marketing a product and keeps a product first and foremost in the minds of customers. Analyzing the response your audience has towards any change in packaging, advertising, products and messages about a particular brand helps maintain brand loyalty and keeps it a “household name.” Working towards creating a positive image in the minds of consumers, inviting consumer feedback and maintaining a constant presence in the market is essential for any product to stay viable in such competitive markets as we have today.

This lab will use the event marker to record how quickly a subject recognizes specific brands of products. Customize the lab to add pulse, heart rate, HRV, GSR, skin temperature or any other parameters to see how consumers react to products and logos.

Equipment Required

  • PC or Mac Computer
  • IX-TA data acquisition unit
  • USB cable
  • IXTA power supply
  • EM-220 Event marker
  • Optional – 4-button Event Marker

IX-TA Setup

1.  Place the IX-TA on the bench, close to the computer.
2. Check Figure T-1-1 in the Tutorial Chapter for the location of the USB port and the power socket on the IX-TA.
3. Check Figure T-1-2 in the Tutorial Chapter for a picture of the IX-TA power supply.
4. Use the USB cable to connect the computer to the USB port on the rear panel of the IX-TA.
5. Plug the power supply for the IX-TA into the electrical outlet. Insert the plug on the end of the power supply cable into the labeled socket on the rear of the IXTA. Use the power switch to turn on the unit. Confirm that the power light is on.

Start the Software
1. Click on the LabScribe shortcut on the computer’s desktop to open the program. If a shortcut is not available, click on the Windows Start menu, move the cursor to All Programs and then to the listing for iWorx. Select LabScribe from the iWorx submenu. The LabScribe Main window will appear as the program opens.
2. On the Main window, pull down the Settings menu and select Load Group.
3. Locate the folder that contains the settings group, BehavioralMarketing.iwxgrp. Select this group and click Open.
4. Pull down the Settings menu again. Select the BrandRecognition settings file.
5. After a short time, LabScribe will appear on the computer screen as configured by the
BrandRecognition settings.
6. For your information, the settings used to configure the LabScribe software and the IX-TA unit for this experiment are programmed on the Preferences Dialog window which can be viewed by selecting Preferences from the Edit menu on the LabScribe Main window.
7. Once the settings file has been loaded, click the Experiment button on the toolbar to open any of the following documents:

  • Appendix
  • Background
  • Labs
  • Setup (opens automatically)

Event Marker Setup

1. Locate the EM-220 event marker (Figure BM-16-S1), in the iWorx kit.
2. Plug the connector to the EM-220 event marker into the EM1 Channel input on the back of the IX-TA (Figure BM-16-S2).

The EM-220 event marker.

Figure BM-16-S1: The EM-220 Event Marker

The IX-TA with the EM-220 event marker

Figure BM-16-S2: The IX-TA with the EM-220 Event Marker

Optional – If you choose to use the 4-button Event Marker (Figure BM-16-S3), connect it to the Digital Input port on the back of the IX-TA (Figure BM-16-S4).

In the settings file, choose the 4-Button view from the View list on the toolbar.

The 4-button Event Marker and cable. Figure BM-

Figure BM-16-S3: The 4-button Event Marker and cable.

The IXTA with the 4-button event marker

Figure BM-16-S4: The IX-TA with the 4-button event marker.

Procedure

1. Instruct the subject:

  • To sit in a chair and hold the EM-220 event marker in their dominant hand. Make sure this enables the subject to press the button on the event marker as quickly as possible.
  • To only click the event marker if the logo is one that he/she recognizes. If the logo is not one the subject has seen before, then the event marker should NOT be clicked.
  • That the last image in each group will be blank.

2. Open the Sequence menu (Figure BM-16-L1). Select Car, which is the proper pre-programmed sequence of logos that should be used in this exercise. When the Car sequence is selected, the name on the Sequence menu is replaced with the word, Car.
3. After clicking Record, click Run Sequence from the Sequence drop down arrow. This will allow the software to display the images for the sequence chosen.

Sequence menu

Figure BM-16-L1: The Sequence menu containing the five (5) pre-programmed sequences used in this experiment.

4. Type <Subject’s Name> Car Logos in the Mark box that is to the right of the Mark button.
5. Click on the Record button and immediately press the Mark button to left of the Mark box to mark the recording. Instruct the subject that the exercise has begun, that a logo will appear at any time, and that he or she should respond to the logo ONLY if it is recognized. Do not click the event marker if the logo is not recognized.
6. Click Run Sequence to allow the program to show all the logos to the subject. The logos will appear every two seconds.
7. After the blank image is shown, click Stop to halt recording.
8. Select Save As in the File menu, type a name for the file. Choose a destination on the computer in which to save the file, like your lab group folder. Designate the file type as *.iwxdata. Click on the Save button to save the data file.

Data Analysis
1. Display the beginning of the data recorded for Exercise 1 on the Main window (Figure BM-16-L3)
2. Use the Display Time icons to adjust the Display Time of the Main window (Figure BM-16-L2)
to show both the visual cue and the response signal of the first trial on the Main window. This trial can also be selected by:

  • Placing one cursor before the beginning of the first logo and the second cursor after the response signal made by the subject; and
  • Clicking the Zoom between Cursors button on the LabScribe toolbar to expand the complete reaction trial to the width of the Main window.

Labscribe Toolbar

Figure BM-16-L2: The LabScribe toolbar

3. Click on the Analysis window icon in the toolbar (Figure BM-16-L2) or select Analysis from the Windows menu to transfer the data displayed in the Main window to the Analysis window (Figure BM-16-L4).

  • NOTE – Data analysis can also be completed in the Main Window. Look at T2-T1 inthe top right corner of the screen for the time it took for the subject to react to the logo.

4. If using the Analysis window, look at the Function Table that is above the display of the
Response channel displayed in the Analysis window. The mathematical function, T2-T1, should appear in this table. The value for T2-T1 is seen on the top margin of the Response channel.
5. Use the mouse to click on and drag a cursor to the Mark made when the first logo was shown. Drag the other cursor to the beginning of the square wave made when the subject clicked the event marker to respond to the logo.
6. Once the cursors are placed in the correct positions for determining the reaction time, record the value for T2-T1 in the Journal. The value can be recorded in the on-line notebook of LabScribe by typing its name and value directly into the Journal. You may also record any data on separate data tables.

The signals for the visual cue and the subject’s response to the cue shown on the Main window. Figure

Figure BM-16-L3: The signals for the visual cue and the subject’s response to the cue shown on the Main window.

The signals of the visual cue and the subject’s response to cue shown on the Analysis window,

Figure BM-16-L4: The signals of the visual cue and the subject’s response to cue shown on the Analysis window, The cursors are placed to measure the subject’s reaction time. The subject’s reaction time is 700 msec.

7. The functions in the channel pull-down menus of the Analysis window can also be used to enter the name and value for T2-T1 into the Journal. To use these functions:

  • Place the cursors at the locations used to measure the reaction time.
  • Transfer the name of the T2-T1 function to the Journal using the Add Title to Journal function in the Response Channel pull-down menu.
  • Transfer the value for T2-T1 to the Journal using the Add Ch. Data to Journal function in the Response Channel pull-down menu.

8. Once the reaction time in the first logo is measured and recorded, use the scroll bar at the bottom of the Analysis window to move the data from the second logo onto the window. If needed, use the Display Time icons to adjust the width of the Analysis window to show both the logo mark and the subject’s response on the same window.
9. Repeat Steps 5 through 7 on the data from the second logo.
10. Use the same techniques used in Steps 5 through 8 to measure the reaction times from the remaining logos.
11. Once the reaction times in all the logos have been measured and recorded, open the Journal and use the values to determine the mean reaction time of the subject. Record the mean reaction time for this exercise in Table BM-16-L1.

Exercise 2: Reaction Time and Brand Recognition – Fast Food

Aim: To measure the reaction time of a subject’s recognition of Fast Food logos.
Procedure

1. Instruct the subjects to prepare themselves as in Exercise 1. In this exercise, the subjects will be responding to images of Fast Food logos.
2. Open the Sequence menu (Figure BM-16-L1). Select Fast Food, which is the proper preprogrammed sequence of logos that should be used in this exercise, the name on the Sequence menu is replaced with the word, Fastfood. This sequence should run automatically when the Record button is clicked. If not, after clicking Record, click Run Sequence from the Sequence drop down arrow. This will allow the software to display the images for the sequence chosen.
3. Type <Subject’s Name> Fast Food in the Mark box that is to the right of the Mark button.
4. Click on the Record button and immediately press the Mark button to the left of the Mark box to mark the recording. Instruct the subject that the exercise has begun, that a fast food logo will appear every two seconds.
5. After the blank image is shown, click Stop to halt recording.
6. Select Save in the File menu.

Data Analysis

1. Use the same techniques explained in Exercise 1 to measure and record the reaction times of the subject presented with Fast Food logos.
2. Enter the mean reaction times for each set of trials in this exercise on Table BM-16-L1.

Questions
1. How does the subject’s mean reaction time for the Cars logos in Exercise 1 compare to the mean reaction time for the Fast Food logos in Exercise 2?
2. What could cause differences in reaction times for different sets of trials?
3. Did the subject recognize more automobile logos or fast food logos?

Exercise 3: Reaction Time and Brand Recognition – Gasoline

Aim: To measure the reaction time of a subject to gasoline brand logos.

Procedure & Data Analysis
1. Repeat the same recording and data analysis directions as in Exercises 1 and 2.
2. Select Save in the File menu.

Questions
1. How do your subject’s percent correct scores compare to those of other subjects?
2. How do your subject’s mean reaction times compare to the class average?
3. Does everyone in class recognize the same logos? Are there some logos that no one
recognizes?
4. If there are logos that no one recognizes, what could the reasons for that be?

Exercise 4: Reaction Time and Brand Recognition – Sneakers

Aim: To measure the reaction time of a subject to athletic footwear logos.

Procedure & Data Analysis
1. Repeat the same recording and data analysis directions as in the previous exercises.
2. Select Save in the File menu.

Exercise 5: Reaction Time and Brand Recognition – Soda

Aim: To measure the reaction time of a subject to soft drink logos.

Procedure & Data Analysis
1. Repeat the same recording and data analysis directions as in the previous exercises.
Select Save in the File menu.

Discussion and Questions
1. Take time to discuss the different logos that were seen.
2. Which of the logos was the MOST recognizable? Why? Explain what made this logo stand out and how each individual related to that logo.
3. Is there “something” about an individual logo that makes it more recognizable?
4. What were the subject’s feelings about the logos? Did one specific logo make them feel
“favorable” or “unfavorable” about a product?
5. What could cause the favorable or unfavorable reaction?

Mean reaction times

Table BM-16-T1: Mean Reaction Times for Different Cues.

Optional Experiments:
1. Use the 4-button event marker and have the subject “rank” the logos as to which one is most recognizable compared to least.
2. Add the pulse sensor and see if the subject’s HR changes when looking at certain logos.
3. Add GSR or the temperature sensor to look at other types of reactions to the different logos.
4. Have students choose their own logos to test and build a sequence with them.
5. Run a random series of images that are not related to see what categories of images are more recognizable than others.

Get Pricing and Info.

Your Name (required)

Your Institution(required)

Your Email (required)

Additional Information:

captcha

test